Three Faiths in Jerusalem (01:46)
Jerusalem is the object of desire for many religions. Christian, Jews, and Muslims believe that Jerusalem is the epicenter for their religious figures.
7th Century-13th Century AD (02:11)
In the 4th century Constantine creates the Christian Jerusalem; Jews are banned from Jerusalem. Christians claim Jewish traditions and relics, and move the center of the world to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
The Prophet Muhammad (02:51)
Tradition states in 610 AD, Archangel Gabriel visits Muhammad in Mecca. Muhammad receives revelations that become the Koran. His followers believe Muhammad traveled to the furthest sanctuary (al Haram al Sharif).
Muhammad's Night Journey (01:16)
Muslims celebrate Al Isra in mosques throughout Jerusalem. Professor Sway shares his understanding of the Night Journey. Simon Montefiore wonders if Muhammad had dreams of reaching Jerusalem.
Pact of Umar (02:44)
Caliphs continue Muhammad's message after his death in 632 AD. In 637 AD, Islamic armies besiege Jerusalem. The Christians negotiate surrender with Caliph Umar. He decrees the Temple Mount important to Islam and invites the Jews back into the city.
The Umayyad Dynasty: 685 AD (03:13)
In 685, Abdul Malik becomes the Umayyad empire's caliph. He builds the Dome of the Rock; a unique Islamic shrine. Beneath the dome lies the rock; for many, it marks the center of the world.
Al-Aqsa, the Farthest Mosque (02:19)
Abdul Malik and his son build a mosque. The Jewish Temple Mount becomes an Islamic shrine. The Umayyads rule from Syria but consider making Jerusalem its capital. Simon Montefiore tours the Caliph's palace complex.
Spiritual Changes in Jerusalem (02:40)
In 969, Egyptians conquer Jerusalem. Islam is split into Sunnis and Shiites. In 1000, a child, Al-Hakim, rules the Fatimid dynasty. Al-Hakim believes he is divine and begins a purge of Christians and Jews.
Fatimid Jerusalem (02:15)
Simon Montefiore explains the descent of the Holy Fire. This ritual provokes Al-Hakim's fury and he orders the Church of the Sepulchre demolished. Montefiore states that Turkic warlords massacre Christian pilgrims.
A Holy War (03:44)
In 1095, Pope Urban II creates a new Christian concept. Holy warriors descend into Asia Minor and battle their wary to Jerusalem. In 1099, the crusaders breech the barriers of Jerusalem and slaughter the citizens.
Crusader Jerusalem (03:18)
The crusaders who died in battle are buried in a graveyard next to the golden gate. Benjamin Kedar considers the mindset of the crusaders. The crusaders claim the religious sites in Jerusalem for Christianity.
Queen Melisende, 1129 AD (01:49)
Queen Melisende gets married at the Church of the Sepulchre and spends the night in the Al-Asqa mosque. Jerusalem flourishes under Melisende's rule.
Saladin the Holy Warrior (02:53)
Saladin, a gifted statesman, defeats Jerusalem's army in 1187 and captures the king. He prepares to storm the city. Balian forces Saladin into a negotiation for a peaceful surrender. Saladin claims Jerusalem.
Islamic Jerusalem (02:24)
Saladin adapts Jerusalem's sacred sites to create Muslim buildings; his reign soon comes under fire. Richard the Lionheart defeats Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf and prepares to take Jerusalem.
Claiming Jerusalem (03:50)
Richard the Lionheart and Saladin try to negotiate the possession of Jerusalem. Prof Friedman compares Richard the Lionheart to Saladin. On September 2, 1192, the men agree to the Treaty of Jaffa.
Destroying the Walls for Nothing (02:34)
Within a generation of Saladin's death, the Crusaders return and invade Egypt. In fear, Saladin's nephews demolish Jerusalem's walls; the Crusaders never reach Palestine. Jerusalemites flee the city in despair.
Frederick II, 1220 AD (04:54)
King Frederick II's enemies called him the anti-Christ. Frederick understands his enemies and his weaknesses. He negotiates a power sharing deal and wins Jerusalem; his excommunication forces him to leave the city.
The Tartars (02:40)
In 1244 AD, 10,000 Tartars destroy churches, houses, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; 2,000 Christians die. Powers fight over the city although little people remain.
Credits: Invasion, Invasion, Invasion: Jerusalem--The Making of a Holy City (00:42)
Credits: Invasion, Invasion, Invasion: Jerusalem--The Making of a Holy City
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