Judgment Day: Jerusalem--The Making of a Holy City (01:54)
View scenes of modern Jerusalem and preview how extreme religious fervor divides and affects this ancient holy city.
Episode Three - Judgment Day (02:15)
Historian, Simon Sebag Montefiore recounts ancient history contributing to the holiness of Jerusalem and how the city was left in ruins from the Crusades. See the Muslim Dome of the Rock where Muhammad ascended to heaven.
Baibars, Savior of Jerusalem (01:22)
Devastated by the Tartars and Mongols, Jerusalem is left in shambles. An Islamic convert, Baibars rises to the rank of general. His goal is to restore the glory of Jerusalem to Islamic splendor.
The Mamluks (02:54)
Mamluk ruler, Baibars plans to re-sanctify the holy city. To rival the celebration of Christian Easter and Jewish Passover, Baibars creates the festival Nabi Musa to celebrate the prophet Moses. We learn of his accidental death by poison.
Mamluk's Legacy (02:47)
Architectural historian, Michael Burgoyne, describes Islamic architecture in Jerusalem which reignites Islamic pilgrimage to the city. The city's prosperity is linked to religiousness. We learn of the decline of the Mamluk Empire.
The Ottomans (03:15)
Listen how the Mamluks are routed by the Turks led by Selim the Grim. Selim tolerates Jews and Christians as long as they pay a tax of submission. His son Suleiman succeeds him and restores the Haram Al Sharif, the Temple Mount.
Growing Minority of Jews (01:07)
Jerusalem thrives and is home to a growing minority of Jews. Still longing for Zion, Jews have had no state since Roman times. Arabic speaking Jews expelled from Spain migrate to the more tolerant Ottoman Empire.
The Western Wall (01:14)
Since the building of the Haram Al Sharif, Jews are unable to pray at their most holy site. Suleiman restricts the Jews to one area, the Western Wall. This becomes the focal point of the Jewish faithful.
Competing Christian Sects (03:13)
Armenian Church affiliate George Hintlian details the history of squabbling Christian sects. He recounts the Ottoman’s system, “whoever pays, stays” and battles between Latin and Orthodox factions to control the Holy Sepulcher.
Elite Arab Families (02:41)
Historian, Dr. Adel Mana, details how Arab families rebel against Ottoman tax hikes and close city gates for two years. Under siege, families in favor of compromise let the Ottomans in and they crush the rebellion.
The Europeans (03:13)
As the Ottoman hold on Jerusalem weakens, Christian rulers eye it greedily. British Evangelical Christians build a church in Jerusalem. Russian Orthodox clergy battle Latin Catholics for access to the Holy Sepulcher and war ensues in Europe.
Crimean War (01:07)
Russia goes to war with the French and British. Tsar Nicholas I sees himself as heir to the Ottoman Empire and Jerusalem. Though the Russians lose the war, they launch a cultural revolution and massive building projects in Jerusalem.
Our host recounts how his distant relative, Montefiore builds a first Jewish settlement outside city walls. Millions of Russian Jews facing pogrom flee to Jerusalem. This begins the spiritual return to the Promised Land as persecution becomes racial.
The Zionists 1895 (03:23)
Theodore Herzl's publication, the Jewish State proposes a Jewish homeland. Recount the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and how British machinations capture Jerusalem during WWI. Glimpse historical film footage.
The British Mandate (02:18)
Honoring their promises, Britain welcomes Jews from around the world to Palestine. As more Jews move in, Palestinian leader Mufti Amin al-Husseini fears the Jews will destroy the Haram Al Sharif and harasses Jews praying at the Western Wall.
Skirmishes erupt between Jews and Muslims. As WWII prompts even more Jewish refugees to pour into the city, Palestinians prepare to fight to retain their homeland. Violence brews in Jerusalem.
Arab Alliance (02:11)
When the rebels attack, the British suppress the Palestinians bitterly. Many Arabs are killed, exiled, or arrested. To win Arab alliance for WWII, Britain offers to cap Jewish settlement and revoke the Jewish State. The Mufti rejects this plan.
British Exit (01:54)
Caught between Jewish and Palestinian demands, Britain defers to the UN. The UN partitions Palestine. Civil war breaks out when Jews claim the Zionist state of Israel and Palestine refuses to recognize the establishment.
Israel 1948 (02:37)
Surrounding countries of the Arab league invade Israel. Civilians are massacred. Israeli forces are overwhelmed. Jews are banned from the Western Wall. Jerusalem becomes a divided city as Jews expel Arabs from their neighborhoods.
Armistice and 6 Days War (02:17)
Displaced Palestinians camp on the West Bank of the Jordan River. The 1949 armistice divides the city until June 1967 brings the Six Day War. Israel furiously attacks Jordan and recaptures long fought over lands and the city of Jerusalem.
Three Abrahamic Faiths (02:45)
Israel leaves Haram Al Sharif to the Muslims. Israel must navigate cautiously as tensions never abate. Learn how a Palestinian plaza is displaced to make more room for the Western Wall and thousands of Palestinians face military occupation.
Center of Global Politics (01:43)
Witness scenes of martial law and the vast concrete wall between Israel and Palestine. Holiness passes down through generations of believers and the world watches Jerusalem with hope.
Credits: Judgment Day: Jerusalem--The Making of a Holy City (00:27)
Credits: Judgment Day: Jerusalem--The Making of a Holy City
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