Challenging Race Relations (01:27)
Stokely Carmichael calls for black liberation. By 1967, the Freedom Movement was changing course as African-Americans struggled to take control of their lives.
Carl Stokes' Campaign (03:45)
African-Americans weren't represented in city politics in 1967. Learn how Cleveland's black mayoral candidate blurred color lines to gain white votes. View archive interviews with residents.
Primary Election (03:08)
Stokes increased black voter turnout and won white support. View him speaking to an African-American congregation. Campaign workers describe voter turnout and celebrations.
Raising the Race Issue (05:16)
Stokes won 52% of Cleveland’s support in the primary election. White voters defected to his opponent Seth Taft; view a mayoral debate in which Stokes points out the racial divide.
Cleveland's First Black Mayor (05:10)
As Taft reached out to white West Side, Stokes appealed to the black community. View Stokes' acceptance speech. Two months later, Gary, Indiana inaugurated its first black mayor.
Black Panther Party (02:25)
In Oakland, California African-Americans were subjected to police harassment. In 1966, Huey Newton and Bobby Sealed organized to monitor police actions.
Confronting Government Racism (01:54)
California legislators tried to outlaw guns in public. View footage of the Black Panthers' 1966 Sacramento protest of Ronald Reagan.
Challenging Nonviolence (02:34)
The Black Panthers provided new images of black protest. They were charged with disturbing the peace for bearing arms in Sacramento—along with other militant groups.
Challenging Law Enforcement (03:34)
The Black Panthers created a newspaper to expose oppression. Police tensions grew and Huey Newton was charged with murdering an officer in 1967; he says he was framed.
African-American Revolution (02:23)
In addition to confronting police, the Black Panthers created community programs; local chapters formed across the nation. Elaine Brown describes empowerment goals.
Free Huey Campaign (01:43)
The Black Panthers joined forces with SNCC in their call for revolution and justice. Stokely Carmichael speaks at a rally.
Struggle for Empowerment (02:17)
Black Panthers and police were wounded in a 1968 gun battle. Newton was convicted of manslaughter and government surveillance increased.
Improving African-American Education (03:24)
Learn about Brooklyn's Ocean Hill-Brownsville District experiment with a community based interracial board and black teachers.
Ocean Hill-Brownsville Controversy (05:09)
The teacher's union protested segregated community hiring practices. Teachers resistant to the experiment were transferred, sparking strikes. The community vowed to keep schools open.
Teaching African-American Roots (03:31)
In September 1968, New York teachers went on strike. Ocean Hill-Brownsville kept schools open; teachers introduced cultural awareness.
Black-Jewish Antagonism (02:34)
Tensions increased between the teacher's union and the Ocean Hill-Brownsville district. Teachers accused the community board of anti-Semitism.
Ending Community Controlled Education (03:53)
In October 1968, the city suspended the Ocean Hill-Brownsville community board to end teacher strikes. Thousands protested under the slogan "power to the people."
Credits: Power! 1967-1968: Eyes on the Prize—America's Civil Rights Movement 1954 - 1985 (01:33)
Credits: Power! 1967-1968: Eyes on the Prize—America's Civil Rights Movement 1954 - 1985
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