Judged by White Standards (01:55)
In the 1960s, blacks celebrated their own standards. The Civil Rights Movement galvanized the struggle for black pride. See archival footage of Amiri Baraka and "The Last Poets."
Heavyweight Championship of the World (02:43)
Cassius Marcellus Clay challenges Sonny Liston for the title; see archival footage. Sportswriter Edwin Pope and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar share their thoughts about Clay.
Cassius Clay and Malcolm X (02:36)
A promoter threatened to cancel the Heavyweight Championship fight unless Clay denied being Muslim. Islam taught black pride, self-reliance, and self-defense. See footage from the 1964 fight.
Joining the Islamic Nation (02:04)
Clay publicly confirmed his religion and changed his name to Muhammad Ali.
Ali vs. Patterson (02:29)
In spring, 1964, Ali traveled through Ghana, Nigeria, and Egypt. In 1965, Ali entered into a war of words with Floyd Patterson. On November 22, 1965, they met in the ring.
Vietnam War Opposition (03:44)
Ali was drafted four months after he defeated Patterson; he requested deferment. Ali received criticism from the state Athletic Commission, Jackie Robinson, and local citizens. Ali faced the induction board.
Houston Induction Center (03:30)
On April 28, 1967, Ali faced the induction board. He refused to be inducted into the U.S. Armed Forces and was sentenced to five years in prison. He appealed the decision and won his case in 1970.
Shifting Civil Rights Movement (05:16)
Ali embodied the movement. In the mid-60s, black students demanded recognition from Howard University. Learn the university's history in American culture and role in the Black Power Movement.
Howard University Controversy (02:14)
See Ali's April, 1967, speech at the university. Students and faculty pushed Howard to proclaim itself a black institution and conflict arose; former student leaders recall the difficult time.
Students Confront Inaction (03:52)
In February, 1968, police killed three black students. In March, 1968, 1,200 students took over the Howard University Administration Building. Administrators discuss the university's position.
Howard University Takeover (03:02)
Legislators reminded the press that Congress was responsible for more than half of the university's annual funding. See archival footage of the 1968 sit-in and interviews with participants.
Howard University Takeover Ends (03:28)
Students feared police action on campus. By day four, trustees were ready to take legal action against the students. Participants discuss ending the sit-in; see archival footage.
Civil Unrest Continues (02:38)
Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated. Black oppression rose during Richard Nixon's presidency. Black Nationalists called for black unity based on common concerns and a shared heritage.
National Black Political Convention (05:27)
On March 10, 1972, 8,000 people arrive in Gary, Indiana to develop a national black agenda; see archival footage. Rev. Jesse Jackson and Mayor Hatcher discuss the event and "Nation Time."
"Unity without Uniformity" (04:31)
Congressman Charles Diggs attempted to close nominations for a convener at the National Black Political Convention. Baraka presided over the intense debate about the agenda; see archival footage.
Adopting the National Black Agenda (04:36)
Dick Gregory addresses the crowd. Hatcher recalls the last day of the convention- some Michigan delegation members left; see archival footage. The National Black Agenda was published on Malcolm X's birthday.
Credits: Ain't Gonna Shuffle No More 1964-1972: Eyes on the Prize—America's Civil Rights Movement 1954 - 1985 (01:36)
Credits: Ain't Gonna Shuffle No More 1964-1972: Eyes on the Prize—America's Civil Rights Movement 1954 - 1985
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