Segments in this Video

Boston Educational Inequality (02:43)


Ten years after schools were integrated, African-American parents complained about poor school conditions. School Committee leader Louise Day Hicks claimed they were unjustified.

Organizing for Educational Justice (03:17)

In 1965, Boston's majority black schools were under-resourced. Parents moved their children to majority white schools and established independent schools.

Suing for Equal Education Rights (02:47)

Black parents filed a class action suit against the Boston School Committee in 1972. Judge Garrity found them guilty of segregation and ordered busing between two neighborhoods.

Boston School Busing Controversy (04:28)

Black parents were concerned for their children's safety. Mayor White appealed for reason; view footage of white parents turning against Edward Kennedy in a protest.

Protesting Integration (02:46)

On September 12, 1974 white parents harassed black students bussed to South Boston High School.

Boston School Boycott (02:31)

Racial violence made headlines; black parents were apprehensive for their children's safety. Up to 50% of white students stayed home; hear from white parents on both sides.

School Racial Violence (02:21)

Police escorts were required to protect black students from white parents. South Boston High students recall harassment and fights.

Racial Hatred (02:12)

An NAACP member describes poor writing skills among African-American students. Violence escalated between whites and blacks in Boston due to school busing.

South Boston High School Riot (03:49)

Gerald Ford opposed busing and politicians abandoned the cause. In December 1974, a white student was stabbed; a mob trapped black students in the building.

Ongoing Busing Resistance (02:56)

Judge Garrity held members of the School Committee in contempt and took over Boston public schools. The first black member was elected in 1977.

Atlanta's First Black Mayor (03:37)

Maynard Jackson was elected mayor in 1973. He describes the challenges of meeting black expectations and addressing white apprehension.

Exposing Economic Inequality (02:27)

Educated blacks had better opportunities in Atlanta. View footage of Jackson spending a weekend with a family on welfare.

Affirmative Action in Atlanta (02:25)

Jackson hired women and minorities to city positions and supported black businesses. View footage of a promotional event with Muhammad Ali.

Challenging Racial Power Structures (03:22)

Jackson appointed Emma Darnell to enforce Affirmative Action policies in Atlanta's airport expansion—losing white business partners as a result.

Atlanta Union Conflict (02:11)

Jackson guaranteed minority contracts for airport expansion, but held out against striking sanitation workers—retaining the black vote and winning reelection.

Affirmative Action Victory (02:39)

Atlanta's airport terminal was successfully completed with 20% minority participation. However, the struggle for economic equality continued.

Challenging Affirmative Action (04:04)

By October 1977, black college enrollment had more than doubled. Learn details of Alan Bakke's lawsuit against the University of California for reverse discrimination.

Civil Rights Defeat (03:23)

Learn how the Bakke Case changed public opinion about Affirmative Action. Black leaders worried the Supreme Court decision was a step backward in terms of equality.

Credits: The Keys to the Kingdom 1974-1980: Eyes on the Prize—America's Civil Rights Movement 1954 - 1985 (01:34)

Credits: The Keys to the Kingdom 1974-1980: Eyes on the Prize—America's Civil Rights Movement 1954 - 1985

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The Keys to the Kingdom 1974–1980: Eyes on the Prize—America’s Civil Rights Movement 1954–1985

Part of the Series : Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Movement 1954–1985
3-Year Streaming Price: $169.95



In the 1970s, antidiscrimination legal rights gained in past decades by the civil rights movement are put to the test. In Boston, some whites violently resist a federal court school desegregation order. Atlanta’s first black mayor, Maynard Jackson, proves that affirmative action can work, but the Bakke Supreme Court case challenges that policy. This film contains offensive language.

Length: 57 minutes

Item#: BVL58644

Copyright date: ©1994

Closed Captioned

Performance Rights

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Only available in USA and Canada.