Boston Educational Inequality (02:43)
Ten years after schools were integrated, African-American parents complained about poor school conditions. School Committee leader Louise Day Hicks claimed they were unjustified.
Organizing for Educational Justice (03:17)
In 1965, Boston's majority black schools were under-resourced. Parents moved their children to majority white schools and established independent schools.
Suing for Equal Education Rights (02:47)
Black parents filed a class action suit against the Boston School Committee in 1972. Judge Garrity found them guilty of segregation and ordered busing between two neighborhoods.
Boston School Busing Controversy (04:28)
Black parents were concerned for their children's safety. Mayor White appealed for reason; view footage of white parents turning against Edward Kennedy in a protest.
Protesting Integration (02:46)
On September 12, 1974 white parents harassed black students bussed to South Boston High School.
Boston School Boycott (02:31)
Racial violence made headlines; black parents were apprehensive for their children's safety. Up to 50% of white students stayed home; hear from white parents on both sides.
School Racial Violence (02:21)
Police escorts were required to protect black students from white parents. South Boston High students recall harassment and fights.
Racial Hatred (02:12)
An NAACP member describes poor writing skills among African-American students. Violence escalated between whites and blacks in Boston due to school busing.
South Boston High School Riot (03:49)
Gerald Ford opposed busing and politicians abandoned the cause. In December 1974, a white student was stabbed; a mob trapped black students in the building.
Ongoing Busing Resistance (02:56)
Judge Garrity held members of the School Committee in contempt and took over Boston public schools. The first black member was elected in 1977.
Atlanta's First Black Mayor (03:37)
Maynard Jackson was elected mayor in 1973. He describes the challenges of meeting black expectations and addressing white apprehension.
Exposing Economic Inequality (02:27)
Educated blacks had better opportunities in Atlanta. View footage of Jackson spending a weekend with a family on welfare.
Affirmative Action in Atlanta (02:25)
Jackson hired women and minorities to city positions and supported black businesses. View footage of a promotional event with Muhammad Ali.
Challenging Racial Power Structures (03:22)
Jackson appointed Emma Darnell to enforce Affirmative Action policies in Atlanta's airport expansion—losing white business partners as a result.
Atlanta Union Conflict (02:11)
Jackson guaranteed minority contracts for airport expansion, but held out against striking sanitation workers—retaining the black vote and winning reelection.
Affirmative Action Victory (02:39)
Atlanta's airport terminal was successfully completed with 20% minority participation. However, the struggle for economic equality continued.
Challenging Affirmative Action (04:04)
By October 1977, black college enrollment had more than doubled. Learn details of Alan Bakke's lawsuit against the University of California for reverse discrimination.
Civil Rights Defeat (03:23)
Learn how the Bakke Case changed public opinion about Affirmative Action. Black leaders worried the Supreme Court decision was a step backward in terms of equality.
Credits: The Keys to the Kingdom 1974-1980: Eyes on the Prize—America's Civil Rights Movement 1954 - 1985 (01:34)
Credits: The Keys to the Kingdom 1974-1980: Eyes on the Prize—America's Civil Rights Movement 1954 - 1985
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