Stress and Cancer Overview (03:14)
Chronic stress increases risk of depression, heart disease, and infectious disease. Dr. Erica Sloan's research on mice has uncovered how stress drives metastasis. Dr. Ranjana Srivastava's patient Robert Denny battles bowel cancer.
Stress and Breast Cancer Study (03:42)
Sloan's team uses mice to research how stress co-opts the lymphatic system to create faster metastasis pathways. Dr. Caroline Le explains how constraining mice activates psychological and physiological stress responses.
Beta Blockers for Cancer Treatment (01:30)
Beta blockers work to reduce high blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmia by blocking the stress response. Sloan's team found that propranolol negated stress effects in mice. They hope to develop a cancer specific beta blocker.
Reducing Stress in Cancer Patients (01:44)
Anesthesiologist Dr. Jonathan Hiller is conducting a clinical trial in breast cancer patients undergoing surgery. Participants are given either the beta blocker propranolol or a placebo. Angela O'Reagan feels less stressed about her approaching operation.
Breast Cancer Surgery (03:44)
Hiller's team injects radioactive dye into a patient's breast to locate the sentinel lymph node. Participant stress levels are measured before and after surgery; Hiller's study will reveal whether beta blockers reduce metastasis rates. O'Reagan cycles regularly to further reduce her stress.
Pluto Mission (02:40)
The New Horizons space craft was sent to Pluto in 2006. Dr. Graham Phillips visits the Tidbinbilla control room. Dr. Jazmina Lazendic-Galloway, Glen Nagle, and Professor Mike Summers discuss dynamic geographical features discovered upon landing.
Pluto Geographical Features (03:16)
Craters indicate an ancient surface and the Sputnik Planum is a nitrogen glacier. Pluto's extreme cold temperature means nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and ammonia are solid. An underground ocean creates ice mountains and volcanoes.
Tidbinbilla Control Room (02:57)
Phillips visits NASA's New Horizons tracking station in Australia. Pluto's odd features make it difficult to categorize as a planet. Its atmosphere ranges to 1,600 kilometers and features 20 layers, and it has five moons with unusual orbits.
Categorizing Pluto (01:46)
Experts debate whether or not Pluto should be classified as a planet. The New Horizons spacecraft will visit a dwarf planet called MU69 in 2019.
Credits: Stress and Cancer, plus Pluto—Catalyst (03:33)
Credits: Stress and Cancer, plus Pluto—Catalyst
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