Cardiovascular System (03:46)
Over 58 million Americans have heart disease. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood; learn about its anatomy and function. The system depends on the heart's ability to pump; blood vessel patency; and blood quality and quantity.
Heart's Pumping Ability, Blood Vessel Patency, Blood Volume, and Thrombosis Reduction (02:08)
Heart rate, stroke volume, and contractility affect pumping and cardiac output (CO). Atherosclerosis is the most common angina cause. Blood quantity depends on sufficient volume and pumping ability. Hear indications for chronotropic agents, inotropics, digoxin, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, anti-platelet agents and anticoagulants.
Angina Medications (03:32)
View an emergency room scenario in which medical professionals assess a patient suffering chest pain. Atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries is the primary cause of reduced oxygen to the heart. Angina medication categories include nitrates, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers.
Nitrates relieve angina by dilating arteries throughout the body to reduce blood pressure. Side effects include hypotension; other vasodilators are contraindicated. Learn about nitroglycerin administration routes, including nursing assessments.
Beta Blockers (02:46)
Atenolol, metoprolol, nadolol and propranolol reduce myocardial oxygen demands by decreasing blood pressure and contractility. They can also reduce myocardial infarction size, arrhythmia incidence, and improve survival. They are antiarrhythmic agents and anti-hypertensives; learn about contraindications and side effects.
Calcium Channel Blockers (01:42)
Diltiazem, nifedipine, and verapamil reduce myocardial oxygen consumption and hypertension by inhibiting calcium movement across cardiac and vascular smooth muscle cell membranes, relaxing vascular smooth muscle and dilating coronary and peripheral arteries. Hear side effects, nursing assessments, indications and contraindications.
Credits: Anatomy Review and Antianginals (00:11)
Credits: Anatomy Review and Antianginals
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