The Atlantic Age: Introduction (04:04)
Europe's exploration of the Amcericas resulted in 12.5 million Africans being shipped as slaves. M'Banza Kongo, now in present day Zaire province, once stood as the capital of the kingdom of Kongo. Henry Bates, Jr. visits the ruins of the Cathedral of São Salvador.
Portuguese Expansion (04:42)
Portuguese navigators discovered the fastest trade routes to and from the West coast of Africa. Diogo Cão discovered the Congo River in 1483 and erected a limestone pillar. Nzinga a Nkuwu converted to Catholicism.
Alfonso Mvemba a Nzinga (03:49)
Alfonso ascended to the throne and spread Catholicism throughout Kongo. Bates, Jr. looks at a crucifix of a black Jesus Christ created during his reign. Giovanni de Medici elevated Henrique Kinu a Mvemba to bishop; Alfonso I presented the Pope with carved ivory.
Sugar and Slaves (03:57)
Sugar emerged as Madiera, São Tomé, and Príncipe's primary export; it sold for as much as the world's most exotic spices. Although Alfonso I aided the slave trade, he complained that the Portuguese violated his laws and illegally kidnapped free citizens.
Impact of America (03:29)
Portugal expanded to Brazil. The need for labor in the New World increased the demand for slaves from African countries. In 1575, Kongo allowed Portugal to establish a colony named Luanda.
The Kingdom of Ndongo attacked the Portuguese colony, which resulted in a large quantity of slaves being exported to Brazil to work in the sugar trade. The Inbangala helped the Portuguese expand and conquer other kingdoms. Queen Nzinga joined forces with the Inbangala to attack Matamba.
Slave Ports (07:51)
Approximately 25% of all slaves shipped to the New World came from Angola; coastal forts became commercial hubs. The kingdom of Dahomey wanted to become part of the slave trade and expanded out to the coast and conquered Ouidah. Cities needed to sell slaves to afford wars.
Robbing its People (04:29)
Slaves had unique skill sets that plantation owners found valuable and brought religious values and ethics to the New World. Women carried increasing responsibility because the young male population was diminished. Families fled to remote locations to escape the slave trade; the Tofinu people took to Lake Nokoué.
Rise of Sokoto Caliphate (03:48)
Usman dan Fodio advocated ending slavery because it is forbidden in Sharia law. The king of Gobir objected and forced the scholar into exile in Degel. After 300 of his followers were sold as slaves, dan Fodio dreamt he received permission from Allah to fight.
Conquering the City States (03:36)
Dan Fodio re-named himself Amir al-Mu'minin and executed the King of Gobir. Islamic scholars ran the government. Experts discuss the impact of his revolution and teachings.
Nana Asmau (04:54)
Nana Asmau was a poet, teacher, and daughter of dan Fodio; experts describe her legacy. The Sokoto Caliphate owned the most slaves in Africa. The Republic of Haiti and Sokoto Caliphate were established in 1804.
Credits: Africa's Great Civilizations— Part 5: The Atlantic Age (00:45)
Credits: Africa's Great Civilizations— Part 5: The Atlantic Age
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