### Segments in this Video

#### Material Behavior(02:18)

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When deciding what building material to use, one must consider how the material will behave. How it responses to different forces is important to its construction.

#### Forces in Action(04:25)

Force causes materials to experience compression or tension. Different forces are explained using a basketball hoop.

#### Translational and Rotational Forces(03:22)

When two forces act on the same point, equilibrium occurs. When force is applied at different points, it causes torque.

#### Cantilevers(01:07)

An expert uses a book and a box to demonstrate cantilevers. Forces cause the book to fall after a certain amount of its weight is pushed over the edge of the table.

#### Stable Equilibrium and Free-body Diagrams(02:20)

When an object is not moving, it is in stable equilibrium. A free-body diagram is a diagram of an object and the forces acting on it.

#### Materials and Their Properties(02:47)

During the building process, the weight of materials does not matter as much as the stiffness of materials. Materials with less stiffness are used if a bridge needs to sway to protect the structure. Lighter material can be made stronger by weaving carbon fibers.

#### Different Forms of Carbon(00:53)

Materials made of carbon are strong because of the atom structure. Some materials, such as graphite, are easily broken with a sheering force.

#### Measuring the Properties of Materials(02:06)

Materials can be compared on the same standards by measuring properties. Tension is tested by applying the same load to each type of material.

#### Stress/Strain Graphs(03:29)

Learn to calculate how a force applies stress to a material. A table can show how much strain there is under different forces.

#### Stress/Strain Graphs: The Plastic Region(03:02)

Hook's Law can be observed in the elastic region of a stress/strain graph. Once the force is removed, the material follows a similar path back to its starting point.

#### Stress/Strain Graphs: Area Under the Curve(01:01)

The area under the curve of a stress/strain graph gives information about the overall toughness of the material. The area is larger for tougher materials.

#### Stress/Strain Graph: Units(01:11)

The vertical axis of the graph is stress and the horizontal is strain. Learn how to label a stress/strain graph and the units that are used.

#### Young's Modulus(00:37)

Young's Modulus is the slope of the stress/strain curve in the elastic region. Learn how to calculate stress and strain.

#### Brittle vs. Ductile(02:40)

Objects that are less stiff are ductile. Stiffer objects are brittle. Learn to plot types on the stress/strain curve.

#### Composites: Reinforced Concrete(00:59)

Concrete is strong under compression but weak in tensile stresses. Steel beams are added to concrete to make it stronger.

#### Composites: Carbon Fibers(00:31)

Carbon fibers are encased in glue to make a strong, lightweight material. Combined materials are stronger than they are individually.

#### Worked Examples(01:01)

The strength of materials can be easily seen on a stress/strain graph. Very ductile materials can stress to more than 500% their original length.

#### Question 1(00:42)

With a stress/strain graph, it can be simple to determine how a material will act under a certain amount of stress. Learn how to find the information for Styrofoam.

#### Question 2(00:57)

Acrylic is a brittle material. Learn how to find the Young’s Modulus for it using a stress/strain graph.

#### Question 3(01:48)

Fracture points can show when a material will break under pressure. Learn to calculate when the material will break.

#### Types of Bonding (Metallic, Ionic, and Covalent)(02:28)

Materials must have atoms that are strongly bonded together to be strong building materials; strength depends on bonding type.

#### Materials and Nanotechnology(03:16)

Using nanotechnology, scientists can manipulate single atoms. The atoms can be moved to change the structure of the material.

#### Credits: Materials: How They Behave Under Load(00:23)

Credits: Materials: How They Behave Under Load

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# Materials: How They Behave Under Load

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### Description

What forces are structural materials subjected to? How do materials behave under load? How suitable are they for particular uses? And how are key properties of materials determined? This program examines forces in action, discussing translational and rotational forces and looking at cantilevers. It explains how to measure the properties of materials and looks at stress/strain graphs, Young's modulus, and brittle and ductile materials. It also discusses forms of carbon, composites, types of bonding, and nanotechnology.

Length: 44 minutes

Item#: BVL150913

ISBN: 978-1-64347-743-5