Home > Part 1: Natural Science
Consider possible scientific representations of sociology. The philosophy of natural science includes ontology, epistemology, methodology, logic, politics, and morality.
Sociopolitical and philosophical thought was a focus during the 18th century. Rationalism and empiricism are derived from reason and observation. Empiricism states that experience is the source of all knowledge; positivism is a form of empiricism. Learn desirable science features from a positivist perspective.
Knowledge is situated historically, culturally, and socioeconomically. Positivist understanding of science encounters the problem of induction; learn two propositions of syllogism. David Hume uses billiards to challenge induction and causality; Karl Popper uses the hypothetico-deductive method. See examples of good and bad science.
The Enlightenment view states that progress is a result of science and reasoning leading to a linear manner of knowledge accumulation; Thomas Kuhn challenges this viewpoint. Conventionalism determines what counts as scientific knowledge whereas constructivism argues that scientific knowledge is socially constructed; "gatekeepers" can suppress scientific ideas. Hear examples of paradigm shifts.
Credits: Part 1: Natural Science
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This program introduces the major philosophical categories of the philosophy of natural science: ontology, epistemology, methodology, logic, and politics/morality. It gives a brief history of the origins of Rationalism and Empiricism and examines the work of the Vienna School of Logical Positivism and the sympathetic critique of Karl Popper and Karl Hempel. It considers the “problem of induction” and their “falsificationism” solution to it. The last section gives a synopsis of Thomas Kuhn’s classic work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
Length: 31 minutes
Copyright date: ©2018
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