Beginning of the Enlightenment (04:25)
The Industrial Revolution transformed the planet and helped cause the demise of many indigenous people's cultures. Humanity harnessed the power of nature and factories erupted in England. Richard Arkwright pioneered mass production. (Credits)
Napoleon Bonaparte Invades Egypt (04:24)
Europeans regarded Egypt as the birthplace of civilization. Bonaparte wanted to create his own mythology and acquire the knowledge of the ancient ruins.
Islamic Cultural Influence (02:41)
Eugene Delacroix claimed he painted "The Women of Algiers in their Apartment" after visiting an Arab household. Other artists who indulged in orientalism included Mariano Fortuny, Jean-Léon Gérôme, and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. The fantasies suggested that Europeans wanted to escape industrial towns of the North.
Depicting Natural Beauty (04:27)
Thomas Cole emigrated from Lancashire England and settled in the Catskill Mountains after finding New York City distasteful. A patron paid for "The Course of Empire" depicting a nation's rise and fall.
Indigenous Influences (04:55)
Albert Bierstadt depicted tribes to demonstrate harmony between man and nature. George Catlin recorded disappearing cultures of Native Americans by painting portraits. "The Indian Gallery" toured the world.
Native American Art (01:49)
Native American's recorded their plight on decorative shirts and bison hides. Dallin Maybee applied traditional motifs in "Conductors of Our Own Destiny."
Maori Art (04:48)
Painted woodcarvings harnessed the spiritual power of a dead ancestor in Piha Beach, New Zealand. Chiefs and wealthy tribe members commissioned Gottfried Lindauer to portray their mana. Tattooists applied tribal designs using a wide blade of albatross bone or shark's teeth.
French Innovations (04:11)
Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre invented photography in Paris. George-Eugene Haussmann carried out an urban renewal project, transforming the city's cramped medieval streets. Nadar photographed Claude Monet, Jules Verne, Sarah Bernhardt, Edouard Manet, Edgar Degas, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir.
Renoir depicted working-class Parisians enjoying a night of drinking and dancing. Impressionists painted daily human life and how it was affected by light and color. Other artists of the time period included Mary Cassatt, Gustave Caillebotte, Claude Monet, and Edouard Manet.
Paul Gauguin left Paris and traveled to Tahiti to establish a studio. Religious missionaries arrived to westernize the people. Gauguin provided an account of the contamination of colonization on the local indigenous population.
Criticism of Progressive Works (05:52)
Matthew Brady and Alexander Gardener exposed the brutality of the Civil War. Jacob August Riis examined the living conditions of the working-class poor in "How the Other Half Lives." Pablo Picasso painted the reception room of a brothel in "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon," inspired by African masks.
World War I Art (03:55)
The gas mask became a symbol of the savagery of technological power. Otto Dix spent three years in the trenches. "War Triptych" depicted the futility of war.
Credits: The Cult of Progress: Episode 8 (00:32)
Credits: The Cult of Progress: Episode 8
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