Drake and St. Augustine (06:45)
Residents began fleeing as Sir Francis Drake's warships approached the Spanish settlement in June 1586. About 80 soldiers remained to defend the fort. Drake resented the Spanish; the Spanish feared Drake's brutality as a privateer for the British government.
Burning of St. Augustine (02:54)
Drake's men burnt the settlement and the fort to the ground for unknown reasons. Some historians believe Drake burned it out of anger when he found nothing of value in the city. Drake exaggerated the facts of the raid in a map he commissioned a few years later.
Drake's Reputation (02:47)
Drake was seen as a hero in 16th century English society. His crimes were mostly overlooked because he was funded by Queen Elizabeth I.
Drake and Spanish Colonialism (04:08)
After St. Augustine was sacked, other Spanish settlements feared attacks from Drake. Settlements began to combine and Spain began losing land holdings in the New World.
St. Augustine and the Timucua People (01:15)
Citizens turned to the local Native American tribe for help recovering after Drake's raid. A Catholic Timucua leader provided food for the city and became a Spanish ally.
Anglo-Spanish War (04:08)
King Phillip II of Spain, a Catholic, launched a war against Protestant England. Drake was eventually defeated by Spanish admiral Gonzalo Mendez de Canco while attempting to attack Puerto Rico. Canco was deemed a hero and made governor of St. Augustine.
Spanish Settlers and Native Americans (05:08)
St. Augustine faced a famine when Canco arrived as governor. He wanted to form an alliance with the Native Americans. The long history of violence, brutality, and slavery made relations with Native Americans difficult.
Catholicism in La Florida (06:53)
The Spanish settlers established a system of Catholic missions throughout La Florida. Native Americans were willing to make political alliances with the Franciscan friars, who sought to convert them. Shortly after Canco arrived in St. Augustine, the Guale people staged an uprising against the local friars that left five dead.
Timucua Language (04:37)
Peace was restored at the Catholic missions after the Guale uprising. Friar Francisco Pereira and the Timucua people learned each other’s languages and wrote manuscripts in both. Modern scholars believe the Timucua language was the first Native American language ever recorded in writing.
Disasters in St. Augustine (04:43)
St. Augustine struggled to survive while being frequently hit by natural disasters. Canco brought in Native people to help the city grow crops in difficult soil. With successful corn production, St. Augustine began to thrive but King Phillip III failed to protect the city from English settlers.
Attack on St. Augustine (07:24)
In May 1668, a disgraced resident from St. Augustine led a ship of British pirates to the city. The pirates killed more than 60 people and took non-European residents as slaves. King Phillip III realized St. Augustine needed more defenses and built Castillo de San Marcos.
Credits: Men of God, Men of Greed: Episode 2 (01:38)
Credits: Men of God, Men of Greed: Episode 2
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