Introduction: Neanderthal, Part 2 (02:45)
Neanderthals are stereotyped as inferior ape men, dying off 40,000 years ago; new research reveals their DNA present in modern humans. Ella Al Shamahi gives a recap of part one which covered research and the creation of Ned's accurate computer avatar.
Last Known Habitat (04:32)
The Rock of Gibraltar, where populations migrated 45,000 years ago, is believed to be the last Neanderthal domain. Professor Geraldine Finlayson describes the environment and resources at the time; a fossil study reveals diet adaptations. Al Shamahi and Clive Finlayson discuss the site's proximity to North Africa and possible connections with modern humans.
Outlasting Afflictions (06:42)
Al Shamahi reviews data for creating an accurate three dimensional model of Ned. Dr. Libby Cowgill explains evidence he endured a hand amputation and head trauma. Forensic Scientist Chris Rynn describes an injury damaging an eye, brain, and paralyzing the body's right side. Andy Serkis and his effects team use updated information to interpret movement.
Ancient Murder Mystery (06:56)
Neanderthal populations declined after modern humans entered their territory; the bones of Shanidar 3 form one of the most complete skeleton discovered. Dr. Rick Potts explains the ancient man took a blow from a sharp instrument to the lower chest. An experiment with a pig carcass reveals he may have been killed by a modern human.
Explaining Extinction (04:30)
As Homo sapiens migrated north, all other hominids disappeared; experts discuss variations and possibilities for extinction. Neanderthal populations were small; although range extensive, communities were sparse, and vulnerable to sudden environmental changes. Gibraltar droughts may have extinguished already dwindled numbers.
Genetic Study (03:16)
The first hominid species evolved in Africa; 600,000 years ago a group journeyed to Europe; 100,000 years ago, modern humans repeated the trek and bred with them; their hybrids spread across the world. Today, most people's genetics include 2% Neanderthal DNA. Geneticist Mark Thomas and Al Shamahi prepare to handle ancient remnants.
Migrating Genes (03:33)
The first hominid species evolved in Africa; 600,000 years ago a group journeyed to Europe; 100,000 years ago, modern humans repeated the trek and bred with them; their hybrids spread across the world. Today, most people's genetics include 2% Neanderthal DNA. See Geneticist Mark Thomas and Al Shamahi prepare to handle ancient remnants; he explains diversity and commonality of the inherited genes.
Mating with Homo Sapiens (03:58)
When humans arrived, Neanderthals were adapted to their environment, genetically advantaged to survive colder conditions and fight certain diseases. Experts discuss benefits of studying their genome and evolution. Most inherited traits benefit survival during an Ice Age, but may be detrimental to modern life.
Decoding Health Risks (03:49)
Dr. Tony Capra discusses using computational genomics to discover effects of Neanderthal genes on human health. He explains how DNA is sequenced and analyzed; findings show their genetics impact modern people's skin color, immune system and bone traits.
Accelerated Juvenile Periods (06:56)
Doctor Benjamin Vernot explains the function of the "organoid" nerve system created at Max Planck Institute; Al Shamahi discusses the importance of understanding differences between Neanderthal and human brains. It is believed humans experienced a period of rapid neurological evolution; although more intelligent, we suffer from more neural diseases.
Man's World (07:13)
Modern technology allows for the introduction of Neanderthals to human civilization. See a computer simulation of the two species engaging in hand to hand combat. Genome sequencing makes cloning technically possible and computer imaging accurate.
Credits: Neanderthal, Part 2 (00:30)
Credits: Neanderthal, Part 2
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