Revolution and Revolutionaries (06:01)
Revolutions are exciting, destroy the familiar, and often have unexpected consequences; people often misuse the term. Revolutionaries portray actions as a type of science and they become heroes. In the early 20th century, absolute monarchs rule many European countries.
Russian Revolution (05:46)
Tsar Nicholas II was an absolute ruler. The revolution began with a demand for food; a liberal provisional government replaced the tsar. In October 1917, Vladimir Lenin seized power. He invented the Communist Party; Red October became a prototype.
Versailles Peace Conference (02:15)
The Soviet Union was not welcomed at the conference; President Woodrow Wilson introduced nationalism. WWI ended the rule of emperors and tsars. Kaiser Wilhelm fled Germany in exile.
Mustafa Kemal- Atatürk (01:27)
Turkish society crumbled during WWI. After the war, military officers led by Kemal seized power. Kemal made Turkey a secular state.
Voting Rights and Revolutionary Politics (04:15)
In the early 20th century, women campaigned for the right to vote. WWI helped create a fascist movement in Italy. Adolf Hitler was the central figure in extreme nationalist politics; Nazis attempted to mold Germany.
Russian Leadership (05:59)
Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin fought for succession after Lenin's death. Stalin ruled through party power and fear; countless citizens disappeared. Trotsky was assassinated and became a revolutionary role model. In the 1930s, celebrities associated themselves with revolution.
Inter-War Years, Foreign Rule (08:15)
Some people assumed natural superiority over other cultures. Britain controlled India through puppet rulers. Mohandas Gandhi preached Indian independence through a revolution of love, though violence occurred. In Japan, militant racial supremacism rose against British power.
Vietnamese Liberation (02:08)
Ho Chi Minh led a resistance army against the Japanese empire. After WWII, British troops encountered banners proclaiming nationalist and communist ideas in Vietnam.
Dictatorship vs. Democracy (01:44)
The inter-war years presented a sharp, political divide; military men were pitted against politicians. Greece experienced several coups.
Spanish Civil War (02:08)
War began in 1936; the socialist Republican government threatened a "Soviet Spain." Gen. Francisco Franco led the army against the legal government.
Lesser Powers Revolt (03:41)
Military disobedience often signaled the turning point of a revolution. In South Africa, Boers used guerrilla warfare against the British. In Palestine, Arabs used terror and disorder tactics against the British and Jewish settlers. Revolutions need a theory or charismatic leader.
Mao Tse Tung and WWII (06:39)
Mao was not a highly public figure during the People's War; his war linked with WWII. Partisan forces attacked Nazis in the Soviet Union, irregular forces attacked the Japanese throughout Asia, and the Resistance engaged in sabotage and assassination in France.
Credits: Revolutions (01:05)
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