Imagine if the Cook Expedition disappeared and never reached Australia. Key Moments in the discovery include Ferdinand Magellan discovering the Pacific Ocean, James Cook's ship becoming stuck on the Great Barrier Reef, and the establishment of a penal colony in Botany Bay. Spaniard, Portuguese, and Dutch expansions occur during the 17th Century.
Memory of Humanity (05:22)
Epidemics, diseases, and deficiencies occur commonly on long voyages. Without refrigeration keeping the crew in good health is difficult. France loses the Seven Years' War, abdicating colonies to England; Louis Antoine de Bougainville's ship reaches Tahiti.
Latitudes are positions along meridians while longitude is along the parallel; longitudes can be discovered using either a chronometer or an astronomical method. James Cook joins Great Britain's Royal Navy in 1755. The HMS Endeavour is outfitted to discover the mythical southern continent.
HMS Endeavour Sets Sail (02:22)
Cook docks in Tahiti and sets up a small observatory to chart Venus' path. The H.M.S. Endeavor sails to New Zealand, Tasmania, and Australia. The ship runs aground at the Great Barrier Reef; a crew member plugs the hole using a sail.
Turning Point in History (04:36)
Jean-Francois de Galaup would discover Australia if the HMS Endeavour sunk. Cook returns to England after three years, bringing back plant and animal samples and nautical maps. On his third expedition, the Captain dies after an argument ensues between the British and the Hawaiians.
Exploring Space (04:37)
NASA baptizes its spaceships Endeavour and Discovery as an homage to Cook. Challenger explodes just after takeoff. Great Britain establishes a penal colony near Botany Bay in 1788.
Credits: James Cook and the Discovery of Australia (00:47)
Credits: James Cook and the Discovery of Australia
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