Republic Transformation (02:15)
Imagine if the Roman Republic continued to worship Jupiter and Christianity was confined to the Middle East. Key moments in establishing the Roman Empire include Augustus Caesar marching into Italy, Octavian being named successor, and defeating Marc Antony at the Battle of Actium.
Rome Expansion (04:31)
Provinces conquered include Macedonia, Greece, Syria, Carthage, and Asia Minor. Power resides in the hands of aristocratic families that rally partisans, exchanging goods and services for political support. Julius Caesar promises civil peace, stability, and order.
Memory of Humanity (04:21)
Roman society is oligarchy; senators are chosen based upon their integrity and prestige. Caesar breaks the law, becomes an enemy of the Republic, and civil war commences. He legitimizes his power by appointing himself dictator.
Lucius Cincinnatus is seen as a paragon of virtue and humility in Roman Society. Caesar marches on Rome, subjugates the senator, and seizes power; 20 conspirators stab the dictator to death in the Curia. A will stipulates that Gaius Octavius inherit the wealth.
Two Successors (02:00)
Marc Antony and Octavian unite to fight against Caesar's assassins; civil war erupts. After reading Antony's will aloud in front of the Senate, Octavian declares war on Queen Cleopatra.
End of the Civil War (03:54)
By writing a will stipulating Octavian as his heir, Caesar assures the Roman Empire will thrive. Christianity is adopted in the 4th century. Agrippa attacks Antony and Queen Cleopatra's forces at the battle of Actium; Senators bestow Octavian the title of Augustus.
Becoming an Empire (05:01)
Compare medieval Japan to the end of the Roman Republic. Octavian surrounds himself with knowledgeable men such as General Agrippa and Gaius Maecenas and consolidates his power. He seeks peace and strives for the prominence of Rome.
Credits: The Edict of Caracalla Turns Roman Citizenship Upside Down (00:47)
Credits: The Edict of Caracalla Turns Roman Citizenship Upside Down
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