Quantum Mechanics (02:19)
Mathematics created the prediction of quantum entanglement, a connection between two particles unaffected by space. Albert Einstein rejected the idea, and attempted to disprove the theory.
Quantum Entanglement (04:16)
A team of physicists from the University of Vienna sets up an experiment to determine the theory's validity. They will use telescopes to collect light from different quasars to control equipment measuring subatomic particles.
Solvay Conference (03:57)
David Kaiser attends a meeting in Brussels, where Einstein and other physicists debated quantum mechanics in 1927. Their arguments lead to the discovery of entanglement, and nature of fundamental particles.
"The Einstein Podolsky Rosen Paradox" (05:38)
Niels Bohr’s Theory of Quantum Mechanics stated that particles are undefined until observed, and its mathematical description described behavioral probabilities. Einstein collaborated with other physicists to discover flaws in experimental results.
Arbitrary Processes With Identical Results (04:32)
Anton Zeilinger and David Kaiser describe entanglement as implied by quantum mechanics mathematics. Einstein believed the concept conflicted with the Theory of Relativity and Principle of Locality; hidden physics were missing from the theory.
Bohr vs. Einstein (04:48)
Bohr argued the validity of entanglement despite Einstein's declaration that quantum mechanics was incomplete; neither had proving experiments. Engineers used its mathematics to create the digital revolution. In 1964, John Bell suggested a test to find whose prediction was correct.
Bell Test Experiment (02:31)
John Clauser invented a machine to test Bell’s theory regarding Einstein and Bohr’s conflicting assertions on entanglement. He focused a laser on calcium atoms, causing them to emit photon pairs, and recorded their behavior; it proved quantum mechanics correct.
Fundamental Fysiks Group (02:21)
Clauser recalls being contacted by free thinking physicists, hoping to combine eastern mysticism with quantum entanglement to describe the great cosmic oneness. They discussed fringe science subjects openly; some wrote popular books.
Harnessing Quantum Entanglement (07:15)
Shohini Ghose explains differences between quantum and standard computers. At Google’s Quantum Computing Library, Marissa Giustina innovates a microchip, attempting to control and entangle its qubits. At Shanghai University of Science and Technology, Jian-Wei Pan creates a secure satellite communication system using photon streams.
Full Cosmic Test (06:01)
Physicists tested possible loopholes in the Bell Test, and were unable to rule out equipment influences. The University of Vienna team eliminated doubts by using quasar light emissions to determine which filters were used to measure photon pairs.
Combining Arguments (06:49)
The University of Vienna team finds clear particle correlations, proving entanglement. David Kaiser discusses adoption of quantum mechanics as part of the natural world; researchers now use its mathematics to find the Unified Theory of the Universe.
Credits: Einstein's Quantum Riddle (01:12)
Credits: Einstein's Quantum Riddle
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