Gender Stereotype in Mass Media (03:04)
Video clips of television programs, and television and print advertisements demonstrate the prevalence of stereotypes in American culture. Could media exist without stereotypes?
Gender Bias and Stereotype in Media (03:02)
Stereotypes existed in American culture long before mass media. Stereotypes allow people to make quick judgements without thinking and to categorize others. Both males and females are objectified in American media today.
Female and Male Stereotypes in Early Television and Film (02:23)
After WWII, television production increased, bringing a sense of the family norm into millions of households. A woman either had a husband or wanted one. American men--nearly always white men--were strong brave, smart individualists.
Early American Images and Gender Stereotyping (02:48)
Women were portrayed as either "fresh and smart" who would make good wives and mothers--or they were vamps or flappers. Later, illustrators like Norman Rockwell created images emblematic of white, middle-class, small town experience.
Audience Segmentation as Market Force (03:04)
Advertisers segment audiences to focus on what will sell and to whom, such as computer games to boys and dress-up dolls to girls. The underlying messages in such divisions, however, are troublesome in their reflection of cultural and sexual bias.
Gender Stereotypes and Jungian Archetypes (04:02)
Film clips and advertisements show the development of media stereotypes of men and women. These gender generalizations have deep, primitive origins--the archetypes carry cultural meaning. Carl Jung's ideas are discussed.
Cultural Archetypes and Consensus Reality (02:02)
Socialization is accomplished through the transmission of values of religion, education, and the media. Television and film clips depict sexual and racial stereotypes.
Advertisers and Feminism (02:40)
Feminist movements of the 20th century were powerful efforts to challenge male-dominated society and hegemony. The Virginia Slims campaign was one of the first overt efforts to appeal to the "new woman."
Gender Equality Dismantled in Media (01:19)
When media channels exploded in the 1990s, media companies were challenged to compete in the more fractionalized marketplace. Gender equality takes a back seat to images of sex and terror as media "old order" is dismantled.
Gender Stereotypes in Media (03:30)
This segment examines the theory of the "male gaze" in media advertisements, the effects on children of three decades of gender stereotyping in mass media, and examines the "stereotype threat."
Mass Media as Hegemonic Forces (02:25)
The theory of media mainstreaming suggests that the more time viewers spend in the world of television the more their view of the world will converge with the mainstream. Men experience the effects of body stereotyping more than in the past.
Mass Media and Body Image Dysfunctions (02:37)
Teen magazines and television programs put a premium on slender, fit female bodies. As an illustration of America's distorted image of beauty, a plain woman is made into a beautiful image with makeup and computer manipulation.
Video Fantasy, Misogyny, and the Internet (02:32)
In 2000, a study of popular video games found that women in mature-rated games were most often portrayed as prostitutes or strippers. The Internet changes the way human beings relate to one another on a grand scale.
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